Definition of Environmental Health

Definition of Environmental Health
Environmental Health - Definition, Scope, Objectives, Targets, Problems, Experts: Environmental health is a discipline of science and art to get a balance between the environment and humans and also is the science and art of managing the environment in order to create environmental conditions that are clean, healthy, comfortable and safe and avoid various diseases.

Understanding of Environmental Health in General
Environmental health is a discipline of science and art to get a balance between the environment and humans and also is the science and art of managing the environment in order to create environmental conditions that are clean, healthy, comfortable and safe and protected from various diseases.
Whereas environmental health science is the study of the relationship of a population group with various kinds of changes that occur in the environment they live in that have the potential to disrupt public health.

Understanding Environmental Health According to Experts
As for environmental health according to experts which include:

According to Slamet Riyadi
Environmental health science is an integral part of public health science that specifically studies and handles human relations with the environment to achieve ecological balance and aims to foster and enhance the degree and optimal healthy life.

According to HAKLI "Association of Environmental Health Experts
Environmental health is an environmental condition that can sustain a dynamic ecological balance between humans and their environment to support the achievement of a healthy and happy quality of human life.

According to WHO "World Health Organization"
Environmental health is an ecological balance that must be created between humans and their environment in order to guarantee the healthy state of humans.

Environmental Scope of Health According to WHO
According to WHO, the scope of health is divided into:

Provision of drinking water
Wastewater management and pollution control
Solid waste disposal
Vector control "vector control is all kinds of efforts made to reduce or reduce vector populations with the intention of preventing or limiting vector-borne diseases or disorders caused by vectors"
Prevention or control of tanag pollution by human excreta "what is meant by excreta is all substances that are no longer used by the body and which must be removed from the body".
Food hygiene including milk.
Air pollution control.
Radiation control.
Occupational health.
Noise control.
Housing and settlement.
Kesling and air transportation aspects.
Regional and urban planning.
accident prevention.
General recreation and tourism.
Sanitary measures related to epidemics or epidemics, natural disasters and population migration.
Precautions needed to guarantee the environment.

Scope of Kesling
In Indonesia, the scope of environmental health is explained in Article 22 paragraph (3) of Law No. 23 of 1992, the scope of kesling is 8, namely:
Water and Air Sanitation
Securing solid waste / rubbish
Securing liquid waste
Securing gas waste
Radiation protection
Noise protection
Safeguard of disease vectors
Sanitation and other safeguards, such as post-disaster conditions
Environmental Health Objectives
The environmental health objectives include:
Correlating, minimizing the occurrence of environmental hazards to human health and well-being.
For prevention by streamlining the regulation of various environmental sources to improve the health and welfare of human life and to prevent the dangers of disease.

Problems of Environmental Health Problems

Problems of Environmental Health Problems 
Environmental Health Targets
According to Article 22 paragraph (2) of Law 23/1992, the targets of implementing environmental health are as follows:

Public places: hotels, terminals, markets, shops, and similar businesses
Residential environment: residential, dormitory / similar
Work environment: offices, industrial estate / similar
Public transportation: land, sea and air vehicles used for public use
Other environments: for example those of a special nature such as environments that are in a state of emergency, catastrophic large-scale population movements, reactors / special places.

Problems of Environmental Health Problems
Problems Environmental health is a complex problem which requires an integration of various related sectors to overcome them. In Indonesia problems in environmental health include:

Clean water
Clean water is water that is used for daily needs whose quality meets health requirements and can be drunk if it has been cooked. Drinking water is water whose quality meets health requirements and can be drunk immediately.

The requirements for clean water quality are as follows:
Physical Requirements: Odorless, tasteless, and colorless
Chemical Requirements: Iron content: maximum allowable 0,3 mg / l, Hardness (max 500 mg / l)
Microbiological Requirements: Fecal coliform / total coliform (max 0 per 100 ml of water)
Dirt / Feces Disposal
A good method of removing stool is using a toilet with the following conditions:
Surface soil must not be contaminated
Contamination of groundwater that may not enter a spring or well may occur
Surface water must not be contaminated
Feces should not be reached by flies and other animals
No fresh stool handling should occur; or, if absolutely necessary, must be limited to a minimum
Latrines must be free from unsightly odors or conditions
The method of manufacture and operation must be simple and inexpensive.

Settlement Health
In general, a house can be said to be healthy if it meets the following criteria:
Meet physiological needs, namely: lighting, adequate air and space, avoiding disturbing noise
Meet psychological needs, namely: adequate privacy, healthy communication between family members and residents of the house
Meet the requirements for preventing transmission of disease between occupants of the house by providing clean water, management of feces and household waste, free of disease vectors and rodents, not excessive residential density, sufficient morning sunlight, protection of food and beverages from pollution, in addition to adequate lighting and handling.
Meet the accident prevention requirements both arising from outside and inside the house, including the requirements of road border lines, construction that is not easy to collapse, non-flammable, and does not tend to make the residents fall.

Waste disposal
Proper and proper waste management techniques must pay attention to factors / elements, as follows:
Waste collection. Factors influencing waste production are population and status, activity level, socio-economic life pattern, geographical location, climate, season, and technological progress.
Garbage Storage
Collection, processing and reuse
By knowing the elements of waste management, we can know the relationships and urgency of each of these elements so that we can solve these problems efficiently.

Insects and Nuisance Animals
Insects as reservoirs (habitat and suvival) germ of diseases which are then referred to as vectors for example: rat fleas for bubonic plague, Anopheles sp for Malaria, Aedes sp for Dengue Fever (DHF), Culex sp for Mosquito Foot Disease / Filariasis.
Prevention / prevention of these diseases include designing a house / place for food management with rat proff (rat meeting), Mosquito nets dipped in pesticides to prevent Anopheles sp. Mosquito bites, 3 M Movement (draining burying and closing) water reservoirs to prevent dengue disease , Use of gauze in vent at home or with pesticides to prevent elephantiasis and sanitation efforts.
Disruptive animals that can transmit diseases such as dogs can transmit rabies / crazy dogs. Cockroaches and flies can be intermediaries for transferring germs to food so as to cause diarrhea. Mice can cause leptospirosis from urine that has been excreted by infected bacteria.

Quaternary Tertiary Structures of Multiple Proteins Composed

Quaternary Tertiary Structures of Multiple Proteins Composed
The tertiary structure of a protein is the overall fold of the polypeptide chain so that it forms a certain 3-dimensional structure. For example, the tertiary structure of an enzyme is often dense, globular in shape. A tertiary structure is a combination of a variety of secondary structures. Tertiary structures are usually lumps. Some protein molecules can interact physically without covalent bonds to form stable oligomers (for example dimers, trimers, or quarters) and form quaternary structures.
These folds are controlled by hydrophobic interactions, but the structure can be stable only if the parts of the protein are locked into place by specific tertiary interactions, such as salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and tight side chain packaging and disulfide bonds.
The tertiary structure of a protein is an overlapping layer over a secondary structural pattern consisting of irregular twists of bonds between side chains (R groups) of various amino acids (Figure 9). This structure is a three dimensional conformation which refers to the spatial relationship between secondary structures. This structure is stabilized by four types of bonds, namely hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and hydrophobic bonds. In this structure, hydrophobic bonds are very important for proteins. Amino acids that have hydrophobic properties will bind to the inside of globular proteins that are not bound to water, while amino acids that are hodrophilic in general will be on the outside surface that binds to the surrounding water (Murray et al, 2009; Lehninger et al., 2004).

Tertiary structure
Quartener structure
Some proteins are composed of more than one polypeptide chain. Quartener structures describe different subunits that are used together to form protein structures.
The quaternary structure is a picture of the arrangement of sub-units or protein promoters in space. This structure has two or more of the protein sub-units with tertiary structures that will form functional protein complexes. the bonds that play a role in this structure are noncovalent bonds, namely electrostatic, hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. Proteins with quaternary structures are often referred to as multimeric proteins. If a protein composed of two subunits is called a dimeric protein and if it is made up of four subunits it is called a tetrameric protein (Figure 10) (Lodish et al., 2003; Murray et al, 2009).

Quartener structure
Judging from its structure, proteins can be divided into 2 groups, namely:
A simple protein which is a protein consisting only of amino acid molecules. Included in the group for example:
This protein is alkaline and does not experience coagulation on heating.
Protein is soluble in water and aqueous salt solution, the BM is relatively low. Albumin is found in egg white (egg albumin), milk (lactalbumin), blood (blood albumin) and vegetables.
Soluble in neutral salt solution, but not soluble in water. Coagulated by heat and will settle to a high concentration of salting solution (salting out) in the body there are many antibodies and fibrinogen. In milk there is in the form of lactoglobulin, in eggs ovoglobulin, in the meat of myosin and acitin and in soybeans called glycillin or generally in legumes called legumin.
Soluble in dilute acids and bases, but not soluble in neutral solvents. Example: gluten in wheat and oryzenin in rice.
Soluble in ethanol 50-90% and insoluble in water. This protein contains a lot of proline and glutamic acid, and there are many in the serelia. For example: zein in corn, gliadin in wheat, and cordurine in barley.
Insoluble in water and neutral solvent and resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. This protein functions as a protective structure in humans and animals. Examples of collagen, elastin, and keratin.
Is a basic protein, because it contains lysine and arginine. Is soluble in water and will be clotted by ammonia.
Almost the same as histones. Globulin is rich in arginine, tryptophan, histidine but does not contain isoleucines found in the blood (hemoglobin).
A very simple protein, BM is relatively low (4000-8000), rich in arginine, soluble in water and coagulated by heat and is basic.

Get to know the structure of protein

Get to know the structure of protein
A kind of amino acid
There are 20 kinds of amino acids, each of which is determined by the type of R group or side chain of amino acids. If the R group is different then the type of amino acid is different. For example, the serine amino acids, aspartic acid and leucine have differences only in the type of R group.
The R groups of amino acids vary in size, shape, charge, hydrogen binding capacity and chemical reactivity. The twenty types of amino acids have never changed. The simplest amino acid is glycine with H atoms as side chains. Next is alanine with a methyl group (-CH3) as a side chain.

Peptide Bonds
The twenty kinds of amino acids bind together, in a variety of order to form proteins. The process of forming proteins from amino acids is called protein synthesis. The bond between one amino acid and another is called a peptide bond. This peptide bond can also be called an amide bond.
Try to review the basic structure of amino acids. In proteins or amino acid chains, the carboxyl group (-COOH) binds to the amino group (-NH2). Each peptide bond is formed, issued 1 water molecule (H2O).

Protein Structure
Proteins made up of amino acid chains will have a variety of structures that are unique to each protein. Because proteins are composed of amino acids that are chemically different, a protein will be strung through peptide bonds and sometimes even connected by sulfide bonds. Furthermore, proteins can be folded to form various structures.
There are 4 levels of protein structure namely primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure.
Primary structure
The primary structure is a simple structure with sequences of amino acids arranged in a linear fashion that is similar to the order of letters in a word and no chain branching occurs.

Primary structure
The primary structure is formed by the bond between the α-amino group and the α-carboxyl group (Figure 3). These bonds are called peptide bonds or amide bonds. This structure can determine the order of an amino acid from a polypeptide.

Peptide formation reaction
Frederick Sanger was a scientist who contributed to the discovery of methods for determining amino acid sequences in proteins, with the use of several protease enzymes that slice the bonds between certain amino acids into shorter peptide fragments to be further separated with the help of chromatographic paper. The amino acid sequence determines the function of proteins, in 1957, Vernon Ingram found that amino acid translocation would change the function of proteins, and further trigger genetic mutations.
The primary structure of a protein refers to the linear amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain. The primary structure is caused by covalent bonds or peptides, which are made during the process of protein biosynthesis or called the translation process. The two ends of the polypeptide chain are called carboxyl (C-terminal) and amino (N-terminal) ends based on the nature of the free group. Residue calculations always begin at the end of the N-terminal (amino group, -NH2), which is the end where the amino group is not involved in the peptide bond. The primary structure of proteins is determined by genes associated with proteins. A certain sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is read by ribosomes in a process called translation. Protein sequences can be determined by methods such as Edman's degradation.

Secondary structure
The secondary structure of proteins is regular, the pattern of repeated folds of the protein skeleton. The two most patterns are alpha helix and beta sheet. The secondary structure of proteins is the local three-dimensional structure of various amino acid sequences in proteins that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Various forms of secondary structures, for example, are as follows:
o alpha helix (α-helix, "twisting-alpha"), in the form of a spiral chain of amino acids shaped like a spiral;
o beta-sheet (β-sheet, "beta-plate"), in the form of wide sheets composed of a number of amino acid chains bound together through hydrogen bonds or thiol (S-H) bonds;
o beta-turn, (β-turn, "beta-curve"); and gamma-turn, (γ-turn, "gamma-indentation").
The secondary structure is a combination of primary structures that are linearly stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the CO = and NH groups along the polypeptide spine. One example of a secondary structure is α-helical and β-pleated (Figures 4 and 5). This structure has segments in the polypeptide that are twisted or folded repeatedly. (Campbell et al., 2009; Conn, 2008).

Secondary structure
The α-helical structure is formed between each of the carbonyl oxygen atoms in a peptide bond with hydrogen attached to the amide group in a peptide bond of four amino acid residues along the polypeptide chain (Murray et al, 2009).
In the secondary structure β-pleated formed by hydrogen bonds between linear regions of the polypeptide chain. β-pleated two forms are found, namely antiparrel and parallel (Figures 6 and 7). Both are different in terms of the hydrogen bonding pattern. In the form of antiparrel conformation has a bond conformation of 7 Å, while conformation in the parallel form is shorter which is 6.5 Å (Lehninger et al, 2004). If this hydrogen bond can be formed between two separate polypeptide chains or between two regions in a single chain that folds itself which involves four amino acid structures, then it is known as β turn shown in Figure 8 (Murray et al, 2009).

Definition of Protein Type and Function

Definition of Protein Type and Function
Protein: Definition, Function, Source, Benefits, Elements and Structure are complex organic compounds with high molecular weight, which are polymers of amino acid monomers

Definition of Protein
Proteins are high molecular weight complex organic compounds which are polymers of amino acid monomers that are connected to each other by peptide bonds. Protein molecules contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. Protein plays an important role in the structure and function of all living cells and viruses. Most of the protein is an enzyme or enzyme subunit. Other types of proteins play a role in structural or mechanical functions, such as proteins that make up the cytoskeleton in the stem and joints.
Protein is involved in the immune system (immune) as an antibody, a control system in the form of hormones, as a storage component (in seeds) and also in nutrient transportation. As one source of nutrition, protein acts as a source of amino acids for organisms that are unable to form these amino acids (heterotrophs). Protein is one of the giant biomolecules, in addition to polysaccharides, lipids and polynucleotides, which are the main constituents of living things. In addition, protein is one of the most studied molecules in biochemistry.

Protein was discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in 1838. Biosynthesis of natural proteins equals genetic expression. The genetic code carried by DNA is transcribed into RNA, which acts as a template for the translation by the ribosome. Until this stage, the protein is still "raw", only composed of proteinogenic amino acids. Through the post-translational mechanism, proteins are formed which have full biological functions. Sources of protein come from Meat, Fish, Eggs, Milk, and similar products of Quarks, Plant seeds, Tribes of legumes and Potatoes.
Protein (protos which means "foremost") is a complex organic compound that has a high molecular weight which is a polymer of amino acid monomers that are connected to each other by peptide bonds. Peptides and proteins are amino acid condensation polymers by removing water elements from amino groups and carboxyl groups.

If the molecular weight of a compound is less than 6,000, it is usually classified as a polypeptide. Proetin is contained in many foods that are often consumed by humans. As in tempeh, tofu, fish and so on. In general, the source of protein is from vegetable and animal sources. Protein is very important for the life of organisms in general, because it serves to repair damaged body cells and supply the nutrients the body needs. So, it is important for us to know about protein and related matters. Protein is one of the giant biomolecules in addition to polysaccharides, lipids and polynucleotides which are the main constituents of living things.
Proteins are high molecular weight complex organic compounds which are polymers of amino acid monomers that are connected to each other by peptide bonds. The protein molecule itself contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitroge and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus. The protein was formulated by Jons Jakob Berzelius in 1938.

Components of Protein Components
The basic unit of protein structure is amino acids. Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino groups (NH2), a carboxylic acid group (COOH), and one of the other groups, especially from a group of 20 compounds that have the basic formula NH2CHRCOOH, and are linked together by peptide bonds. In other words, proteins are composed of amino acids that bind to one another.

Amino acid structure An amino-α acid consists of:
Atom C α. Called α because it is next to a carboxyl (acid) group.
The H atom is bound to the C α atom.
Carboxyl groups are bound to the C α atom.
The amino group is bound to the C α atom.
The R group which is also bound to the C α atom.

Public health
Public Health is efforts to overcome sanitation problems that interfere with health. In other words, public health is the same as sanitation.
Efforts to improve and improve environmental sanitation are public health activities. Then at the end of the 18th century, found by bacteria that cause disease and several types of immunization, public health activities are the prevention of diseases that occur in the community through improved sanitation and prevention of diseases through immunization.
At the beginning of the 19th century, public health had progressed well, public health was defined as the application of integration between medical science, sanitation, and social science in preventing diseases that occurred in the community.
In the early 20th century, Winslow (1920), public health was a science and art: preventing disease, prolonging life, and improving health, through "Community Organizing Efforts" to:

Improvement of environmental sanitation
Eradication of infectious diseases
Education for personal hygiene
Organizing medical services and treatments for early diagnosis and treatment
Development of social engineering to ensure everyone is fulfilled the needs of a decent life in maintaining their health.

Definition of Health - Aspects, Physical, mental, Social, Community, Experts

Definition of Health - Aspects, Physical, mental, Social, Community, Experts
Definition of Health - Aspects, Physical, mental, Social, Community, Experts: Where the state of prosperity from the start physical, mental and social that allows people to live productively.

Definition of Health
All humans want a healthy life, because there is a healthy saying that is expensive, so take care of your health as well as possible so that you are always healthy. because healthy is a gift from the almighty creator given to his people. From the term or definition of Health is where the state of prosperity from the start physical, mental and social that allows people to live productively.
General Understanding is the welfare state of the body, soul, and social that enables everyone to live productively socially and economically. Meanwhile, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948 states that the notion of health is as "a state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not just the absence of disease or weakness".
In 1986, WHO, in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, said that it was "a resource for everyday life, not a life goal. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical abilities.

Understanding of Health According to Experts
So you know about the definition of health here will review about health according to experts.
1. World Health Organization (WHO)
Health is a state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not just the absence of disease or weakness.
Whereas in the Ottawa Charter it says that health is a resource for daily life, not a purpose in life. Health is a positive concept that emphasizes personal, social and physical abilities.

2. Law
Health is a state of well-being of body, soul, and social that enables all people to live productively socially and economically.

3. Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI)
In the Ulama National Conference in 1983 revealed that health is a physical, spiritual, and social endurance that humans have as a gift from God that must be thankful for by practicing all of His teachings.

4. Perkins
According to Perkins revealed that health is a balanced and dynamic state between a form & function of the body as well as various factors that influence it.

5. Paune
According to Paune, health is an effective function of self-care resources which guarantees an action for self-care. Health is a behavior that is in accordance with the objectives needed to obtain, maintain and improve a psychosocial & spiritual function.

6. Neuman
According to Neuman, health is a biopsychological, social, cultural and spiritual balance on the three lines of defense that are flexible, normal and resistant.

7. White
According to White stated that healthy as a condition where a person at the time of inspection did not have any complaints or no signs of abnormality or disease.

Health Aspects
Basically, health includes four aspects, including:

Physical health
Physical health is manifested when someone does not feel and complain of pain or absence of complaints and does not objectively appear ill. All organs of the body function normally or do not experience disturbances.

Mental Health (mental)
Mental health (soul) includes 3 components, namely mind, emotional, and spiritual.
Healthy thinking is reflected in the way of thinking or thinking.
Healthy emotions are reflected in a person's ability to express their emotions, such as fear, joy, worry, sadness and so on.
Healthy spirituality is reflected in the way a person expresses gratitude, praise, trust and so on for something outside of this mortal realm, namely God Almighty. For insteance healthy spirit can be saw from religion practice of one. In other words, spiritual health is a condition in which a person performs his worship and all the religious rules he follows.

Social health
Social health is manifested when a person is able to relate to other people or other groups well, regardless of race, ethnicity, religion or beliefs, social status, economics, politics, etc., as well as mutual tolerance and respect.

Economic Health
Health from an economic aspect looks rinsing a person (adult) productive, in the sense of having activities that produce something that can contribute to his own life or family financially.
For those who are not yet an adult (students or students) and the elderly (retirees), this limitation by itself does not apply. Therefore, for the group, what applies is social productivity, which has activities that are useful for their lives, such as achievement for students, and social, religious, or other social services for the elderly.

Radioactive Definitions and Effects for Health and Benefits in Agriculture

Radioactive Definitions and Effects for Health and Benefits in Agriculture
In this case the use of radioactive material, which is specifically radioactive radiation is based on the ability of radiation to cause changes such as ionizing molecules or molecules, breaking bonds between atoms so as to produce free radicals, making the nucleus or nucleons become radioactive and freeing up some heat energy.
To be able to be used effectively and efficiently, first identify to find out the type and amount of radiation to be used. This needs to be done because each type of radiation has unique properties so to determine its presence both in the type and amount of radiation it is also necessary to use methods and techniques that are also typical for each type of radiation.
Radioactive decay occurs in three main types - named alpha, beta and gamma decay with the first three-letter symbol of the Greek alphabet. Radioactive decay occurs in unstable atomic nuclei - those that do not have enough binding energy to hold the nucleus together due to excess either protons or neutrons, appearing in three main types - named alpha, beta and gamma decay with the first three letter symbol from the Greek alphabet.
Gamma radiation is the most million of the three and will be able to penetrate a few centimeters of lead. Beta particles will be absorbed by a few millimeters of aluminum while alpha particles will stop their tracks after a few centimeters of air or a piece of paper.

Effects on human health
There are two main health effects caused by radiation that act in the short and long term and also at shorter and greater distances. Radiation causes health problems by killing cells in the body and the amount and type of damage done depends on the radiation dose received and the time at which the dose was spread.
Radioactive materials that spread to a wider area can cause long-term health effects through prolonged exposure, especially if they enter the food chain or are inhaled or swallowed directly. Radioactive isotopes of iodine which undergo beta decay, can accumulate in the thyroid gland and can cause thyroid cancer.

Utilization in Agriculture
As for the utilization in agriculture which include:
Eradication of Homo With Infertile Male Techniques
Radiation can cause biological effects such as cabbage pests, in the laboratory are bred cabbage pests in the form of a considerable amount. The pest is then radiationed so that male insects become infertile. After that the pest is released in the area attacked by pests. It is hoped that a marriage between local pests and infertile males will be released, eggs from such marriages will not hatch. Thus the pest reproduction is disrupted and will reduce the population.

Plant breeding
Plant breeding or formation of superior seeds can be done using radiation. For example rice breeding, rice seedlings are given radiation with a dose that varies from the smallest dose that does not carry the effect to a lethal low dose. The irradiated seeds are then planted and placed in a garden in groups according to the size of their radiation doses.

Food Storage
We know that foodstuffs such as potatoes and onions if stored a long time will sprout. Radiation can inhibit the growth of such materials. So before the material is stored in a given dose of radiation so it will not sprout thus can be stored longer.
Thus the discussion on "Radioactive" Definition & (Effects for Health - Benefits in Agriculture) hopefully with this review can add insight and knowledge of you all, thank you very much for your visit